WebGL Example

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This example draws a triangle to the screen using the WebGL API.

Cargo.toml

The Cargo.toml enables features necessary to obtain and use a WebGL rendering context.

[package]
name = "webgl"
version = "0.1.0"
authors = ["The wasm-bindgen Developers"]
edition = "2018"

[lib]
crate-type = ["cdylib"]

[dependencies]
js-sys = "0.3.55"
wasm-bindgen = "0.2.78"

[dependencies.web-sys]
version = "0.3.4"
features = [
  'Document',
  'Element',
  'HtmlCanvasElement',
  'WebGlBuffer',
  'WebGlVertexArrayObject',
  'WebGl2RenderingContext',
  'WebGlProgram',
  'WebGlShader',
  'Window',
]

src/lib.rs

This source file handles all of the necessary logic to obtain a rendering context, compile shaders, fill a buffer with vertex coordinates, and draw a triangle to the screen.


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
use wasm_bindgen::prelude::*;
use wasm_bindgen::JsCast;
use web_sys::{WebGl2RenderingContext, WebGlProgram, WebGlShader};

#[wasm_bindgen(start)]
pub fn start() -> Result<(), JsValue> {
    let document = web_sys::window().unwrap().document().unwrap();
    let canvas = document.get_element_by_id("canvas").unwrap();
    let canvas: web_sys::HtmlCanvasElement = canvas.dyn_into::<web_sys::HtmlCanvasElement>()?;

    let context = canvas
        .get_context("webgl2")?
        .unwrap()
        .dyn_into::<WebGl2RenderingContext>()?;

    let vert_shader = compile_shader(
        &context,
        WebGl2RenderingContext::VERTEX_SHADER,
        r##"#version 300 es
 
        in vec4 position;

        void main() {
        
            gl_Position = position;
        }
        "##,
    )?;

    let frag_shader = compile_shader(
        &context,
        WebGl2RenderingContext::FRAGMENT_SHADER,
        r##"#version 300 es
    
        precision highp float;
        out vec4 outColor;
        
        void main() {
            outColor = vec4(1, 1, 1, 1);
        }
        "##,
    )?;
    let program = link_program(&context, &vert_shader, &frag_shader)?;
    context.use_program(Some(&program));

    let vertices: [f32; 9] = [-0.7, -0.7, 0.0, 0.7, -0.7, 0.0, 0.0, 0.7, 0.0];

    let position_attribute_location = context.get_attrib_location(&program, "position");
    let buffer = context.create_buffer().ok_or("Failed to create buffer")?;
    context.bind_buffer(WebGl2RenderingContext::ARRAY_BUFFER, Some(&buffer));

    // Note that `Float32Array::view` is somewhat dangerous (hence the
    // `unsafe`!). This is creating a raw view into our module's
    // `WebAssembly.Memory` buffer, but if we allocate more pages for ourself
    // (aka do a memory allocation in Rust) it'll cause the buffer to change,
    // causing the `Float32Array` to be invalid.
    //
    // As a result, after `Float32Array::view` we have to be very careful not to
    // do any memory allocations before it's dropped.
    unsafe {
        let positions_array_buf_view = js_sys::Float32Array::view(&vertices);

        context.buffer_data_with_array_buffer_view(
            WebGl2RenderingContext::ARRAY_BUFFER,
            &positions_array_buf_view,
            WebGl2RenderingContext::STATIC_DRAW,
        );
    }

    let vao = context
        .create_vertex_array()
        .ok_or("Could not create vertex array object")?;
    context.bind_vertex_array(Some(&vao));

    context.vertex_attrib_pointer_with_i32(0, 3, WebGl2RenderingContext::FLOAT, false, 0, 0);
    context.enable_vertex_attrib_array(position_attribute_location as u32);

    context.bind_vertex_array(Some(&vao));

    let vert_count = (vertices.len() / 3) as i32;
    draw(&context, vert_count);

    Ok(())
}

fn draw(context: &WebGl2RenderingContext, vert_count: i32) {
    context.clear_color(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0);
    context.clear(WebGl2RenderingContext::COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

    context.draw_arrays(WebGl2RenderingContext::TRIANGLES, 0, vert_count);
}

pub fn compile_shader(
    context: &WebGl2RenderingContext,
    shader_type: u32,
    source: &str,
) -> Result<WebGlShader, String> {
    let shader = context
        .create_shader(shader_type)
        .ok_or_else(|| String::from("Unable to create shader object"))?;
    context.shader_source(&shader, source);
    context.compile_shader(&shader);

    if context
        .get_shader_parameter(&shader, WebGl2RenderingContext::COMPILE_STATUS)
        .as_bool()
        .unwrap_or(false)
    {
        Ok(shader)
    } else {
        Err(context
            .get_shader_info_log(&shader)
            .unwrap_or_else(|| String::from("Unknown error creating shader")))
    }
}

pub fn link_program(
    context: &WebGl2RenderingContext,
    vert_shader: &WebGlShader,
    frag_shader: &WebGlShader,
) -> Result<WebGlProgram, String> {
    let program = context
        .create_program()
        .ok_or_else(|| String::from("Unable to create shader object"))?;

    context.attach_shader(&program, vert_shader);
    context.attach_shader(&program, frag_shader);
    context.link_program(&program);

    if context
        .get_program_parameter(&program, WebGl2RenderingContext::LINK_STATUS)
        .as_bool()
        .unwrap_or(false)
    {
        Ok(program)
    } else {
        Err(context
            .get_program_info_log(&program)
            .unwrap_or_else(|| String::from("Unknown error creating program object")))
    }
}

#}