WebAudio

View full source code or view the compiled example online

This example creates an FM oscillator using the WebAudio API and web-sys.

Cargo.toml

The Cargo.toml enables the types needed to use the relevant bits of the WebAudio API.

[package]
name = "webaudio"
version = "0.1.0"
authors = ["The wasm-bindgen Developers"]
edition = "2018"

[lib]
crate-type = ["cdylib"]

[dependencies]
wasm-bindgen = "0.2.29"

[dependencies.web-sys]
version = "0.3.4"
features = [
  'AudioContext',
  'AudioDestinationNode',
  'AudioNode',
  'AudioParam',
  'GainNode',
  'OscillatorNode',
  'OscillatorType',
]

src/lib.rs

The Rust code implements the FM oscillator.


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
use wasm_bindgen::prelude::*;
use web_sys::{AudioContext, OscillatorType};

/// Converts a midi note to frequency
///
/// A midi note is an integer, generally in the range of 21 to 108
pub fn midi_to_freq(note: u8) -> f32 {
    27.5 * 2f32.powf((note as f32 - 21.0) / 12.0)
}

#[wasm_bindgen]
pub struct FmOsc {
    ctx: AudioContext,
    /// The primary oscillator.  This will be the fundamental frequency
    primary: web_sys::OscillatorNode,

    /// Overall gain (volume) control
    gain: web_sys::GainNode,

    /// Amount of frequency modulation
    fm_gain: web_sys::GainNode,

    /// The oscillator that will modulate the primary oscillator's frequency
    fm_osc: web_sys::OscillatorNode,

    /// The ratio between the primary frequency and the fm_osc frequency.
    ///
    /// Generally fractional values like 1/2 or 1/4 sound best
    fm_freq_ratio: f32,

    fm_gain_ratio: f32,
}

impl Drop for FmOsc {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        let _ = self.ctx.close();
    }
}

#[wasm_bindgen]
impl FmOsc {
    #[wasm_bindgen(constructor)]
    pub fn new() -> Result<FmOsc, JsValue> {
        let ctx = web_sys::AudioContext::new()?;

        // Create our web audio objects.
        let primary = ctx.create_oscillator()?;
        let fm_osc = ctx.create_oscillator()?;
        let gain = ctx.create_gain()?;
        let fm_gain = ctx.create_gain()?;

        // Some initial settings:
        primary.set_type(OscillatorType::Sine);
        primary.frequency().set_value(440.0); // A4 note
        gain.gain().set_value(0.0); // starts muted
        fm_gain.gain().set_value(0.0); // no initial frequency modulation
        fm_osc.set_type(OscillatorType::Sine);
        fm_osc.frequency().set_value(0.0);

        // Connect the nodes up!

        // The primary oscillator is routed through the gain node, so that
        // it can control the overall output volume.
        primary.connect_with_audio_node(&gain)?;

        // Then connect the gain node to the AudioContext destination (aka
        // your speakers).
        gain.connect_with_audio_node(&ctx.destination())?;

        // The FM oscillator is connected to its own gain node, so it can
        // control the amount of modulation.
        fm_osc.connect_with_audio_node(&fm_gain)?;

        // Connect the FM oscillator to the frequency parameter of the main
        // oscillator, so that the FM node can modulate its frequency.
        fm_gain.connect_with_audio_param(&primary.frequency())?;

        // Start the oscillators!
        primary.start()?;
        fm_osc.start()?;

        Ok(FmOsc {
            ctx,
            primary,
            gain,
            fm_gain,
            fm_osc,
            fm_freq_ratio: 0.0,
            fm_gain_ratio: 0.0,
        })
    }

    /// Sets the gain for this oscillator, between 0.0 and 1.0.
    #[wasm_bindgen]
    pub fn set_gain(&self, mut gain: f32) {
        if gain > 1.0 {
            gain = 1.0;
        }
        if gain < 0.0 {
            gain = 0.0;
        }
        self.gain.gain().set_value(gain);
    }

    #[wasm_bindgen]
    pub fn set_primary_frequency(&self, freq: f32) {
        self.primary.frequency().set_value(freq);

        // The frequency of the FM oscillator depends on the frequency of the
        // primary oscillator, so we update the frequency of both in this method.
        self.fm_osc.frequency().set_value(self.fm_freq_ratio * freq);
        self.fm_gain.gain().set_value(self.fm_gain_ratio * freq);
    }

    #[wasm_bindgen]
    pub fn set_note(&self, note: u8) {
        let freq = midi_to_freq(note);
        self.set_primary_frequency(freq);
    }

    /// This should be between 0 and 1, though higher values are accepted.
    #[wasm_bindgen]
    pub fn set_fm_amount(&mut self, amt: f32) {
        self.fm_gain_ratio = amt;

        self.fm_gain
            .gain()
            .set_value(self.fm_gain_ratio * self.primary.frequency().value());
    }

    /// This should be between 0 and 1, though higher values are accepted.
    #[wasm_bindgen]
    pub fn set_fm_frequency(&mut self, amt: f32) {
        self.fm_freq_ratio = amt;
        self.fm_osc
            .frequency()
            .set_value(self.fm_freq_ratio * self.primary.frequency().value());
    }
}

#}

index.js

A small bit of JavaScript glues the rust module to input widgets and translates events into calls into wasm code.

import('./webaudio')
  .then(rust_module => {
    let fm = null;

    const play_button = document.getElementById("play");
    play_button.addEventListener("click", event => {
      if (fm === null) {
        fm = new rust_module.FmOsc();
        fm.set_note(50);
        fm.set_fm_frequency(0);
        fm.set_fm_amount(0);
        fm.set_gain(0.8);
      } else {
        fm.free();
        fm = null;
      }
    });

    const primary_slider = document.getElementById("primary_input");
    primary_slider.addEventListener("input", event => {
      if (fm) {
        fm.set_note(event.target.value);
      }
    });

    const fm_freq = document.getElementById("fm_freq");
    fm_freq.addEventListener("input", event => {
      if (fm) {
        fm.set_fm_frequency(event.target.value);
      }
    });

    const fm_amount = document.getElementById("fm_amount");
    fm_amount.addEventListener("input", event => {
      if (fm) {
        fm.set_fm_amount(event.target.value);
      }
    });
  })
  .catch(console.error);