Without a Bundler

View full source code

This example shows how the --target web flag can be used load code in a browser directly. For this deployment strategy bundlers like Webpack are not required. For more information on deployment see the dedicated documentation.

First let's take a look at the code and see how when we're using --target web we're not actually losing any functionality!

use wasm_bindgen::prelude::*;

// Called when the wasm module is instantiated
#[wasm_bindgen(start)]
pub fn main() -> Result<(), JsValue> {
    // Use `web_sys`'s global `window` function to get a handle on the global
    // window object.
    let window = web_sys::window().expect("no global `window` exists");
    let document = window.document().expect("should have a document on window");
    let body = document.body().expect("document should have a body");

    // Manufacture the element we're gonna append
    let val = document.create_element("p")?;
    val.set_inner_html("Hello from Rust!");

    body.append_child(&val)?;

    Ok(())
}

#[wasm_bindgen]
pub fn add(a: u32, b: u32) -> u32 {
    a + b
}

Otherwise the rest of the deployment magic happens in index.html:

<html>
  <head>
    <meta content="text/html;charset=utf-8" http-equiv="Content-Type"/>
  </head>
  <body>
    <!-- Note the usage of `type=module` here as this is an ES6 module -->
    <script type="module">
      // Use ES module import syntax to import functionality from the module
      // that we have compiled.
      //
      // Note that the `default` import is an initialization function which
      // will "boot" the module and make it ready to use. Currently browsers
      // don't support natively imported WebAssembly as an ES module, but
      // eventually the manual initialization won't be required!
      import init, { add } from './pkg/without_a_bundler.js';

      async function run() {
        // First up we need to actually load the wasm file, so we use the
        // default export to inform it where the wasm file is located on the
        // server, and then we wait on the returned promise to wait for the
        // wasm to be loaded.
        // It may look like this: `await init('./pkg/without_a_bundler_bg.wasm');`,
        // but there is also a handy default inside `init` function, which uses
        // `import.meta` to locate the wasm file relatively to js file
        //
        // Note that instead of a string here you can also pass in an instance
        // of `WebAssembly.Module` which allows you to compile your own module.
        // Also note that the promise, when resolved, yields the wasm module's
        // exports which is the same as importing the `*_bg` module in other
        // modes
        await init();

        // And afterwards we can use all the functionality defined in wasm.
        const result = add(1, 2);
        console.log(`1 + 2 = ${result}`);
        if (result !== 3)
          throw new Error("wasm addition doesn't work!");
      }

      run();
    </script>
  </body>
</html>

And that's it! Be sure to read up on the deployment options to see what it means to deploy without a bundler.

Using the older --target no-modules

View full source code

The older version of using wasm-bindgen without a bundler is to use the --target no-modules flag to the wasm-bindgen CLI.

While similar to the newer --target web, the --target no-modules flag has a few caveats:

With that in mind the main difference is how the wasm/JS code is loaded, and here's an example of loading the output of wasm-pack for the same module as above.

<html>
  <head>
    <meta content="text/html;charset=utf-8" http-equiv="Content-Type"/>
  </head>
  <body>
    <!-- Include the JS generated by `wasm-pack build` -->
    <script src='pkg/without_a_bundler_no_modules.js'></script>

    <script type=module>
      // Like with the `--target web` output the exports are immediately
      // available but they won't work until we initialize the module. Unlike
      // `--target web`, however, the globals are all stored on a
      // `wasm_bindgen` global. The global itself is the initialization
      // function and then the properties of the global are all the exported
      // functions.
      //
      // Note that the name `wasm_bindgen` can be configured with the
      // `--no-modules-global` CLI flag
      const { add } = wasm_bindgen;

      async function run() {
        await wasm_bindgen('./pkg/without_a_bundler_no_modules_bg.wasm');

        const result = add(1, 2);
        console.log(`1 + 2 = ${result}`);
      }

      run();
    </script>
  </body>
</html>